Table of Contents for MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers


Foreword by Rosemary G. Feal xiii
Preface by David G. Nicholls xvii
Note on the Web Component xxi
CHAPTER 1: Research and Writing 1
1.1. The Research Paper as a Form of Exploration
3
1.2. The Research Paper as a Form of Communication
5
1.3. Selecting a Topic
6
1.3.1. Freedom of Choice
6
1.3.2. Finding an Appropriate Focus
6
1.3.3. Summing Up
7
1.4. Conducting Research
8
1.4.1. The Modern Academic Library
8
1.4.2. Library Research Sources
9
1.4.3. The Central Information System
10
1.4.4. Reference Works
10
1.4.5. The Online Catalog of Library Holdings
18
1.4.6. Full-Text Databases
24
1.4.7. Other Library Resources and Services
26
1.4.8. Web Sources
28
1.4.9. Summing Up
30
1.5. Compiling a Working Bibliography
31
1.5.1. Keeping Track of Sources
31
1.5.2. Creating a Computer File for the Working Bibliography
31
1.5.3. Recording Essential Publication Information
32
1.5.4. Noting Other Useful Information
32
1.5.5. Verifying Publication Information
32
1.5.6. Converting the Working Bibliography to the Works-Cited List
33
1.5.7. Summing Up
33
1.6. Evaluating Sources
33
1.6.1. Authority
34
1.6.2. Accuracy and Verifiability
37
1.6.3. Currency
37
1.6.4. Summing Up
38
1.7. Taking Notes
38
1.7.1. Methods of Note-Taking
38
1.7.2. Types of Note-Taking
39
1.7.3. Recording Page or Reference Numbers
39
1.7.4. Using a Computer for Note-Taking
39
1.7.5. Amount and Accuracy of Note-Taking
40
1.7.6. Summing Up
40
1.8. Outlining
41
1.8.1. Working Outline
41
1.8.2. Thesis Statement
42
1.8.3. Final Outline
43
1.8.4. Summing Up
45
1.9. Writing Drafts
46
1.9.1. The First Draft
46
1.9.2. Subsequent Drafts
46
1.9.3. Writing with a Word Processor
47
1.9.4. The Final Draft and the Research Project Portfolio
49
1.9.5. Summing Up
49
1.10. Language and Style
49
CHAPTER 2: Plagiarism and Academic Integrity 51
2.1. Definition of Plagiarism
52
2.2. Consequences of Plagiarism
52
2.3. Information Sharing Today
54
2.4. Unintentional Plagiarism
55
2.5. Forms of Plagiarism
56
2.6. When Documentation Is Not Needed
59
2.7. Related Issues
59
2.7.1. Reusing a Research Paper
59
2.7.2. Collaborative Work
59
2.7.3. Research on Human Subjects
60
2.7.4. Copyright Infringement
60
2.8. Summing Up
60
CHAPTER 3: The Mechanics of Writing 63
3.1. Spelling
65
3.1.1. Consistency
65
3.1.2. Word Division
65
3.1.3. Plurals
65
3.1.4. Foreign Words
66
3.2. Punctuation
66
3.2.1. The Purpose of Punctuation
66
3.2.2. Commas
66
3.2.3. Semicolons
70
3.2.4. Colons
70
3.2.5. Dashes and Parentheses
71
3.2.6. Hyphens
72
3.2.7. Apostrophes
74
3.2.8. Quotation Marks
75
3.2.9. Square Brackets
76
3.2.10. Slashes
76
3.2.11. Periods, Question Marks, and Exclamation Points
77
3.2.12. Spacing after Concluding Punctuation Marks
77
3.3. Italics
78
3.3.1. Words and Letters Referred to as Words and Letters
78
3.3.2. Foreign Words in an English Text
79
3.3.3. Emphasis
79
3.4. Names of Persons
79
3.4.1. First and Subsequent Uses of Names
79
3.4.2. Titles of Persons
80
3.4.3. Names of Authors and Fictional Characters
81
3.5. Numbers
81
3.5.1. Arabic Numerals
81
3.5.2. Use of Words or Numerals
81
3.5.3. Commas in Numbers
83
3.5.4. Percentages and Amounts of Money
83
3.5.5. Dates and Times of the Day
83
3.5.6. Inclusive Numbers
84
3.5.7. Roman Numerals
85
3.6. Titles of Works in the Research Paper
86
3.6.1. Capitalization and Punctuation
86
3.6.2. Italicized Titles
88
3.6.3. Titles in Quotation Marks
89
3.6.4. Titles and Quotations within Titles
89
3.6.5. Exceptions
91
3.6.6. Shortened Titles
92
3.7. Quotations
92
3.7.1. Use and Accuracy of Quotations
92
3.7.2. Prose
93
3.7.3. Poetry
95
3.7.4. Drama
96
3.7.5. Ellipsis
97
3.7.6. Other Alterations of Sources
101
3.7.7. Punctuation with Quotations
102
3.7.8. Translations of Quotations
104
3.8. Capitalization and Personal Names in Languages Other Than English
105
3.8.1. French
105
3.8.2. German
107
3.8.3. Italian
109
3.8.4. Spanish
110
3.8.5. Latin
112
CHAPTER 4: The Format of the Research Paper 115
4.1. Margins
116
4.2. Text Formatting
116
4.3. Heading and Title
116
4.4. Page Numbers
117
4.5. Tables and Illustrations
118
4.6. Paper and Printing
121
4.7. Corrections and Insertions
121
4.8. Binding
121
4.9. Electronic Submission
122
CHAPTER 5: Documentation: Preparing the List of Works Cited 123
5.1. Documenting Sources
126
5.2. MLA Style
126
5.3. The List of Works Cited
129
5.3.1. Introduction
129
5.3.2. Placement of the List of Works Cited
130
5.3.3. Arrangement of Entries
131
5.3.4. Two or More Works by the Same Author
133
5.3.5. Two or More Works by the Same Authors
134
5.3.6. Cross-References
135
5.4. Citing Periodical Print Publications
136
5.4.1. Introduction
136
5.4.2. An Article in a Scholarly Journal
137
5.4.3. An Article in a Scholarly Journal That Uses Only Issue Numbers
140
5.4.4. An Article in a Scholarly Journal with More Than One Series
141
5.4.5. An Article in a Newspaper
141
5.4.6. An Article in a Magazine
142
5.4.7. A Review
144
5.4.8. An Abstract in an Abstracts Journal
145
5.4.9. An Anonymous Article
145
5.4.10. An Editorial
146
5.4.11. A Letter to the Editor
146
5.4.12. A Serialized Article
146
5.4.13. A Special Issue
147
5.5. Citing Nonperiodical Print Publications
148
5.5.1. Introduction
148
5.5.2. A Book by a Single Author
148
5.5.3. An Anthology or a Compilation
153
5.5.4. A Book by Two or More Authors
154
5.5.5. A Book by a Corporate Author
156
5.5.6. A Work in an Anthology
157
5.5.7. An Article in a Reference Book
160
5.5.8. An Introduction, a Preface, a Foreword, or an Afterword
161
5.5.9. An Anonymous Book
162
5.5.10. A Scholarly Edition
162
5.5.11. A Translation
164
5.5.12. An Illustrated Book or a Graphic Narrative
165
5.5.13. A Book Published in a Second or Subsequent Edition
167
5.5.14. A Multivolume Work
168
5.5.15. A Book in a Series
170
5.5.16. A Republished Book or Journal Issue
171
5.5.17. A Publisher's Imprint
173
5.5.18. A Book with Multiple Publishers
173
5.5.19. A Brochure, Pamphlet, or Press Release
174
5.5.20. A Government Publication
174
5.5.21. The Published Proceedings of a Conference
177
5.5.22. A Book in a Language Other Than English
178
5.5.23. A Book Published before 1900
178
5.5.24. A Book without Stated Publication Information or Pagination
179
5.5.25. An Unpublished Dissertation
180
5.5.26. A Published Dissertation
180
5.6. Citing Web Publications
181
5.6.1. Introduction
181
5.6.2. A Nonperiodical Publication
184
5.6.3. A Scholarly Journal
190
5.6.4. A Periodical Publication in an Online Database
192
5.7. Citing Additional Common Sources
193
5.7.1. A Television or Radio Broadcast
193
5.7.2. A Sound Recording
195
5.7.3. A Film or a Video Recording
197
5.7.4. A Performance
198
5.7.5. A Musical Score or Libretto
199
5.7.6. A Work of Visual Art
200
5.7.7. An Interview
201
5.7.8. A Map or Chart
202
5.7.9. A Cartoon or Comic Strip
202
5.7.10. An Advertisement
203
5.7.11. A Lecture, a Speech, an Address, or a Reading
203
5.7.12. A Manuscript or Typescript
203
5.7.13. A Letter, a Memo, or an E-Mail Message
204
5.7.14. A Legal Source
205
5.7.15. An Article in a Microform Collection of Articles
206
5.7.16. An Article Reprinted in a Loose-Leaf Collection of Articles
207
5.7.17. A Publication on CD-ROM or DVD-ROM
207
5.7.18. A Digital File
210
5.8. A Work in More Than One Publication Medium
211
CHAPTER 6: Documentation: Citing Sources in the Text 213
6.1. Parenthetical Documentation and the List of Works Cited
214
6.2. Information Required in Parenthetical Documentation
214
6.3. Readability
216
6.4. Sample References
219
6.4.1. Citing an Entire Work, Including a Work with No Page Numbers
219
6.4.2. Citing Part of a Work
220
6.4.3. Citing Volume and Page Numbers of a Multivolume Work
222
6.4.4. Citing a Work Listed by Title
223
6.4.5. Citing a Work by a Corporate Author
224
6.4.6. Citing Two or More Works by the Same Author or Authors
225
6.4.7. Citing Indirect Sources
226
6.4.8. Citing Common Literature
226
6.4.9. Citing More Than One Work in a Single Parenthetical Reference
229
6.5. Using Notes with Parenthetical Documentation
230
6.5.1. Content Notes
230
6.5.2. Bibliographic Notes
231
CHAPTER 7: Abbreviations 233
7.1. Introduction
234
7.2. Time Designations
235
7.3. Geographic Names
236
7.4. Common Scholarly Abbreviations and Reference Words
240
7.5. Publishers' Names
247
7.6. Symbols and Abbreviations Used in Proofreading and Correction
249
7.6.1. Selected Proofreading Symbols
249
7.6.2. Common Correction Symbols and Abbreviations
250
7.7. Titles of Works
250
7.7.1. Bible
251
7.7.2. Works by Shakespeare
253
7.7.3. Works by Chaucer
254
7.7.4. Other Works
255
APPENDIX A: Guides to Writing 257
A.1. Introduction
258
A.2. Dictionaries of Usage
258
A.3. Guides to Nondiscriminatory Language
259
A.4. Books on Style
260
APPENDIX B: Specialized Style Manuals 261
Index 265