Table of Contents for Complete Idiot's Guide to Statistics


Part 1: The Basics
1(78)
Let's Get Started
3(12)
Where Is This Stuff Used?
4(1)
Who Thought of This Stuff?
5(1)
Early Pioneers
5(1)
More Recent Famous People
6(1)
The Field of Statistics Today
6(4)
Descriptive Statistics---the Minor League
7(1)
Inferential Statistics---the Major League
8(2)
Ethics and Statistics---It's a Dangerous World Out There
10(2)
Your Turn
12(3)
Data, Data Everywhere and Not a Drop to Drink
15(14)
The Importance of Data
16(1)
The Sources of Data---Where Does All This Stuff Come From?
17(3)
Direct Observation---I'll Be Watching You
19(1)
Experiments---Who's in Control?
19(1)
Surveys---Is That Your Final Answer?
20(1)
Types of Data
20(1)
Types of Measurement Scales---a Weighty Topic
21(2)
Nominal Level of Measurement
21(1)
Ordinal Level of Measurement
21(1)
Interval Level of Measurement
22(1)
Ratio Level of Measurement
22(1)
Computers to the Rescue
23(3)
The Role of Computers in Statistics
23(1)
Installing the Data Analysis Add-In
24(2)
Your Turn
26(3)
Displaying Descriptive Statistics
29(18)
Frequency Distributions
30(7)
Constructing a Frequency Distribution
31(1)
(A Distant) Relative Frequency Distribution
32(1)
Cumulative Frequency Distribution
33(1)
Graphing a Frequency Distribution---the Histogram
34(1)
Letting Excel Do Our Dirty Work
34(3)
Statistical Flower Power---the Stem and Leaf Display
37(2)
Charting Your Course
39(5)
What's Your Favorite Pie Chart?
39(2)
Bar Charts
41(2)
Line Charts
43(1)
Your Turn
44(3)
Calculating Descriptive Statistics: Measures of Central Tendency (Mean, Median, and Mode)
47(14)
Measures of Central Tendency
48(8)
Mean
48(2)
Weighted Mean
50(1)
Mean of Grouped Data from a Frequency Distribution
51(3)
Median
54(1)
Mode
55(1)
How Does One Choose?
56(1)
Using Excel to Calculate Central Tendency
56(2)
Your Turn
58(3)
Calculating Descriptive Statistics: Measures of Dispersion
61(18)
Range
62(1)
Variance
63(4)
Using the Raw Score Method (When Grilling)
64(1)
The Variance of a Population
65(2)
Standard Deviation
67(1)
Calculating the Standard Deviation of Grouped Data
67(2)
The Empirical Rule: Working the Standard Deviation
69(2)
Chebyshev's Theorem
71(2)
Measures of Relative Position
73(2)
Quartiles
73(1)
Interquartile Range
74(1)
Using Excel to Calculate Measures of Dispersion
75(1)
Your Turn
76(3)
Part 2: Probability Topics
79(84)
Introduction to Probability
81(12)
What Is Probability?
82(4)
Classical Probability
82(1)
Empirical Probability
83(2)
Subjective Probability
85(1)
Basic Properties of Probability
86(1)
The Intersection of Events
87(1)
The Union of Events: A Marriage Made in Heaven
88(1)
Your Turn
89(4)
More Probability Stuff
93(12)
Conditional Probability
94(2)
Independent Versus Dependent Events
96(1)
Multiplication Rule of Probabilities
97(1)
Mutually Exclusive Events
98(1)
Addition Rule of Probabilities
99(2)
Summarizing Our Findings
101(1)
Bayes' Theorem
102(1)
Your Turn
103(2)
Counting Principles and Probability Distributions
105(16)
Counting Principles
106(6)
The Fundamental Counting Principle
106(1)
Permutations
107(2)
Combinations
109(2)
Using Excel to Calculate Permutations and Combinations
111(1)
Probability Distributions
112(6)
Random Variables
112(1)
Discrete Probability Distributions
113(2)
Rules for Discrete Probability Distributions
115(1)
The Mean of a Discrete Probability Distribution
115(1)
The Variance and Standard Deviation of a Discrete Probability Distribution
116(2)
Your Turn
118(3)
The Binomial Probability Distribution
121(10)
Characteristics of a Binomial Experiment
122(1)
The Binomial Probability Distribution
123(3)
Binomial Probability Tables
126(1)
Using Excel to Calculate Binomial Probabilities
127(2)
The Mean and Standard Deviation for the Binomial Distribution
129(1)
Your Turn
129(2)
The Poisson Probability Distribution
131(14)
Characteristics of a Poisson Process
132(1)
The Poisson Probability Distribution
133(3)
Poisson Probability Tables
136(3)
Using Excel to Calculate Poisson Probabilities
139(1)
Using the Poisson Distribution as an Approximation to the Binomial Distribution
140(2)
Your Turn
142(3)
The Normal Probability Distribution
145(18)
Characteristics of the Normal Probability Distribution
146(2)
Calculating Probabilities for the Normal Distribution
148(9)
Calculating the Standard Z-Score
148(2)
Using the Standard Normal Table
150(5)
The Empirical Rule Revisited
155(1)
Calculating Normal Probabilities Using Excel
156(1)
Using the Normal Distribution as an Approximation to the Binomial Distribution
157(4)
Your Turn
161(2)
Part 3: Inferential Statistics
163(108)
Sampling
165(12)
Why Sample?
166(1)
Random Sampling
167(6)
Simple Random Sampling
168(2)
Systematic Sampling
170(1)
Cluster Sampling
171(1)
Stratified Sampling
172(1)
Sampling Errors
173(1)
Examples of Poor Sampling Techniques
174(2)
Your Turn
176(1)
Sampling Distributions
177(18)
What Is a Sampling Distribution?
177(1)
Sampling Distribution of the Mean
178(4)
The Central Limit Theorem
182(3)
Standard Error of the Mean
185(1)
Why Does the Central Limit Theorem Work?
186(2)
Putting the Central Limit Theorem to Work
188(2)
Sampling Distribution of the Proportion
190(3)
Calculating the Sample Proportion
190(2)
Calculating the Standard Error of the Proportion
192(1)
Your Turn
193(2)
Confidence Intervals
195(18)
Confidence Intervals for the Mean with Large Samples
196(8)
Estimators
196(1)
Confidence Levels
197(2)
Beware of the Interpretation of Confidence Interval!
199(1)
The Effect of Changing Confidence Levels
200(1)
The Effect of Changing Sample Size
201(1)
Determining Sample Size for the Mean
202(1)
Calculating a Confidence Interval When σ Is Unknown
202(1)
Using Excel's Confidence Function
203(1)
Confidence Intervals for the Mean with Small Samples
204(4)
When σ Is Known
204(1)
When σ Is Unknown
205(3)
Confidence Intervals for the Proportion with Large Samples
208(3)
Calculating the Confidence Interval for the Proportion
209(1)
Determining Sample Size for the Proportion
210(1)
Your Turn
211(2)
Introduction to Hypothesis Testing
213(14)
Hypothesis Testing---the Basics
214(5)
The Null and Alternative Hypothesis
215(1)
Stating the Null and Alternative Hypothesis
216(1)
Two-Tail Hypothesis Test
217(1)
One-Tail Hypothesis Test
218(1)
Type I and Type II Errors
219(1)
Example of a Two-Tail Hypothesis Test
220(3)
Using the Scale of the Original Variable
221(1)
Using the Standardized Normal Scale
222(1)
Example of a One-Tail Hypothesis Test
223(2)
Your Turn
225(2)
Hypothesis Testing with One Sample
227(22)
Hypothesis Testing for the Mean with Large Samples
228(3)
When Sigma Is Known
228(1)
When Sigma Is Unknown
229(2)
The Role of Alpha in Hypothesis Testing
231(2)
Introducing the p-Value
233(3)
The p-Value for a One-Tail Test
233(1)
The p-Value for a Two-Tail Test
234(2)
Hypothesis Testing for the Mean with Small Samples
236(6)
When Sigma Is Known
236(1)
When Sigma Is Unknown
237(4)
Using Excel's TINV Function
241(1)
Hypothesis Testing for the Proportion with Large Samples
242(4)
One-Tail Hypothesis Test for the Proportion
243(2)
Two-Tail Hypothesis Test for the Proportion
245(1)
Your Turn
246(3)
Hypothesis Testing with Two Samples
249(22)
The Concept of Testing Two Populations
250(1)
Sampling Distribution for the Difference in Means
250(2)
Testing for Differences Between Means with Large Sample Sizes
252(3)
Testing a Difference Other Than Zero
255(1)
Testing for Differences Between Means with Small Sample Sizes and Unknown Sigma
256(5)
Equal Population Standard Deviations
257(3)
Unequal Population Standard Deviations
260(1)
Letting Excel Do the Grunt Work
261(2)
Testing for Differences Between Means with Dependent Samples
263(2)
Testing for Differences Between Proportions with Independent Samples
265(4)
Your Turn
269(2)
Part 4: Advanced Inferential Statistics
271(116)
The Chi-Square Probability Distribution
273(16)
Review of Data Measurement Scales
274(1)
The Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test
274(5)
Stating the Null and Alternative Hypothesis
276(1)
Observed Versus Expected Frequencies
276(1)
Calculating the Chi-Square Statistic
277(1)
Determining the Critical Chi-Square Score
277(2)
Using Excel's CHIINV Function
279(1)
Characteristics of a Chi-Square Distribution
279(1)
A Goodness-of-Fit Test with the Binomial Distribution
280(2)
Chi-Square Test for Independence
282(4)
Your Turn
286(3)
Analysis of Variance
289(20)
One-Way Analysis of Variance
290(1)
Completely Randomized ANOVA
291(7)
Partitioning the Sum of Squares
292(3)
Determining the Calculated F-Statistic
295(1)
Determining the Critical F-Statistic
296(2)
Using Excel to Perform One-Way ANOVA
298(1)
Pairwise Comparisons
299(2)
Completely Randomized Block ANOVA
301(4)
Partitioning the Sum of Squares
302(1)
Determining the Calculated F-Statistic
303(1)
To Block or Not to Block, That Is the Question
304(1)
Your Turn
305(4)
Correlation and Simple Regression
309(78)
Independent Versus Dependent Variables
310(1)
Correlation
311(20)
Correlation Coefficient
312(2)
Testing the Significance of the Correlation Coefficient
314(1)
Using Excel to Calculate Correlation Coefficients
315(1)
Simple Regression
316(1)
The Least Squares Method
317(4)
Confidence Interval for the Regression Line
321(2)
Testing the Slope of the Regression Line
323(1)
The Coefficient of Determination
324(1)
Using Excel for Simple Regression
325(1)
A Simple Regression Example with Negative Correlation
326(4)
Assumptions for Simple Regression
330(1)
Simple Versus Multiple Regression
330(1)
Your Turn
331(2)
Appendixes
Solutions to ``Your Turn''
333(34)
Statistical Tables
367(10)
Glossary
377(10)
Index 387