Table of Contents for Bridging the Gap


Preface xviii
Chapter 1 Active Learning
1(54)
What Is Active Learning?
2(4)
What Are Cognitive Psychology and Neuroscience?
2(1)
How Does the Brain Screen Messages?
2(1)
Brain Booster
2(3)
Brain Booster: Are You Paying Attention?
5(1)
Cognitive Styles
6(5)
Cognitive Style Preferences
6(1)
Global Versus Analytical Preferences
6(1)
Sensory Learning Styles
7(2)
Multiple Intelligences: There Is More Than One Way to Be Smart
9(2)
What If I'm Not a Verbal or Logical Learner?
11(1)
What Is Concentration?
11(1)
Poor Concentration: Causes and Cures
12(6)
External Distractions
12(1)
Internal Distractions
13(4)
Brain Booster: Are You Curious?
17(1)
Reader's Tip: Improving Concentration
17(1)
Successful Academic Behaviors
18(37)
Reader's Tip: Managing School And Work E-Mail
21(5)
Summary Points
26(1)
MyReadingLab
27(1)
The Reading Workshop
27(1)
Selection 1 Psychology
28(1)
Video: Creativity
29(1)
"Becoming More Creative"
29(6)
Carole Wade
Carol Tavris
Concept Prep For Psychology
35(2)
Selection 2 History
37(1)
"Home Front Workers, Rosie the Riveter, and Victory Girls"
37(8)
Jacqueline Jones
Concept Prep For History
45(2)
Selection 3 Environmental Science
47(1)
"Volunteers Help Protect the Environment"
48(7)
Chapter 2 Vocabulary
55(38)
Remembering New Words
56(3)
Associate Words in Phrases
56(1)
Associate Words with Rhymes or Sounds
56(1)
Brain Booster: Use Your Senses To Make More Sense!
56(1)
Associate Words with Images
57(1)
Associate Words in Families
57(1)
Seek Reinforcement
57(1)
Create Concept Cards
57(2)
Using Context Clues
59(10)
Definition or Synonym
59(1)
Elaborating Details
59(1)
Examples
60(1)
Comparison
60(1)
Contrast
61(1)
Antonyms
61(1)
Limitations of Context Clues
62(7)
Multiple Meanings of a Word
69(1)
Understanding the Structure of Words
69(4)
Using a Dictionary
73(2)
Using a Glossary
75(1)
Using a Thesaurus
76(2)
Brain Booster: Meaning Matters!
78(1)
Word Origins
78(3)
Reader's Tip: Categories of Analogy Relationships
81(1)
Using Analogies
81(2)
Easily Confused Words
83(1)
Recognizing Acronyms
83(1)
Recognizing Transitional Words
84(9)
Reader's Tip: Types Of Transitional Words
85(1)
Summary Points
85(1)
MyReadingLab
86(1)
The Reading Workshop
87(1)
Vocabulary Booster: Over, Under, Around, And Through
87(6)
Chapter 3 Strategic Reading and Study
93(48)
What is Strategic Reading?
94(2)
Four Types of Readers
94(1)
The Stages of Reading
95(1)
Stage 1 Strategies for Previewing
96(3)
Signposts for Previewing
96(1)
Reader's Tip: Asking Questions Before Reading
96(2)
Preview to Activate Schemata
98(1)
Brain Booster: Schemata And Your Brain
99(1)
Stage 2 Strategies for Integrating Knowledge While Reading
99(7)
Integrating Ideas: How Do Good Readers Think?
100(1)
Metacognition
100(1)
Reader's Tip: Using Thinking Strategies While Reading
101(2)
Reader's Tip: Developing Metacognition For Reading
103(3)
Stage 3 Strategies for Recalling
106(35)
Recalling Through Writing
106(1)
The Three Steps of Recalling
106(1)
Reader's Tip: Recalling After Reading
107(1)
Brain Booster: Use It To Remember It!
108(2)
Summary Points
110(1)
MyReadingLab
111(1)
The Reading Workshop
111(1)
Selection 1 History
112(1)
Business Savvy to Generous Philanthropy"
112(6)
Madame C.J. Walker
Selection 2 Health
118(1)
"High-Risk Drinking and College Students"
118(8)
Rebecca J. Donatelle
Selection 3 Business
126(1)
Video: Toms Shoes: Changing The World
126(1)
"Toms Shoes: "Be the Change You Want to See in the World"
126(8)
Gary Armstrong
Philip Kotler
Concept Prep For Business
134(2)
Vocabulary Booster: The Good, The Bad, And The Ugly
136(5)
Chapter 4 Main Idea
141(74)
What Is a Topic?
142(1)
What Is a Main Idea?
143(1)
What Are Supporting Details
143(1)
Distinguishing Topics, Main Ideas, and Details: A Closer Look
143(3)
Strategies for Finding the Main Idea
146(5)
Prior Knowledge and Constructing the Main Idea
146(1)
"Informed" Expert Readers
147(1)
"Uninformed" Expert Readers
147(1)
Identifying Main Ideas Among Sentences
147(2)
Questioning for the Main Idea
149(2)
Reader's Tip: Using Questions To Find The Main Idea
151(1)
Stated Main Ideas
151(8)
The Topic Sentence
151(2)
How Common Are Stated Main Ideas?
153(1)
Where Are Stated Main Ideas Located?
153(6)
What Are Major and Minor Details?
159(3)
Reader's Tip: Signals for Significance
159(3)
Unstated Main Ideas
162(9)
Unstated Main Ideas in Sentences
163(2)
Unstated Main Ideas in Paragraphs
165(6)
Interpreting the Main Idea of Longer Selections
171(4)
Reader's Tip: Getting The Main Idea Of Longer Selections
172(1)
Brain Booster: Brains Need The Right Amount Of Sleep
173(2)
Summary Writing: A Main Idea Skill
175(40)
Why Summarize?
176(1)
Reader's Tip: How To Summarize
176(4)
Brain Booster: Chronic Stress And The Brain
180(1)
Summary Points
180(1)
MyReadingLab
181(1)
The Reading Workshop
181(1)
Selection 1 Psychology
182(1)
Video: The Effects Of Stress
182(1)
"Coping with Stress"
182(8)
Carole Wade
Carol Tavris
Concept Prep For Psychology
190(2)
Selection 2 Short Story
192(1)
"On the Sidewalk, Bleeding"
192(10)
Evan Hunter
Concept Prep For Literature
202(2)
Selection 3 Criminal Justice
204(1)
"Fighting Violent Gang Crime with Math"
204(7)
Stuart Wolpert
Vocabulary Booster: Who's Who In Medicine?
211(4)
Chapter 5 Patterns of Organization
215(54)
Textbook Organization: The Big Picture
216(3)
What Do Transitional Words Do?
216(1)
Words That Signal Addition
216(1)
Words That Signal Examples or Illustrations
217(1)
Words That Signal Time or Sequence
217(1)
Words That Signal Comparison
217(1)
Words That Signal Contrast
217(1)
Reader's Tip: Signal Words for Transition
218(1)
Words That Signal Cause and Effect
218(1)
Patterns of Organization in Textbooks
219(9)
Brain Booster: Brains Like Patterns
220(1)
Simple Listing
220(1)
Definition
220(1)
Description
221(1)
Time Order, Sequence, or Narration
222(1)
Comparison
223(1)
Contrast
223(1)
Comparison and Contrast
223(1)
Cause and Effect
224(1)
Classification
225(1)
Addition
225(1)
Summary
226(1)
Location or Spatial Order
226(1)
Generalization and Example
227(1)
Reader's Tip: Patterns of Organization and Signal Words
228(1)
Clues to the Organizational Pattern
228(5)
Brain Booster: Watering the Brain
233(1)
Mixed Organizational Patterns
233(36)
Summary Points
236(1)
MyReadingLab
237(1)
The Reading Workshop
237(1)
Selection 1 Narrative
238(1)
"Instant Message, Instant Girlfriend"
238(8)
Roger Hobs
Selection 2 History
246(1)
"Women in History"
246(8)
Leonard Pitt
Concept Prep For Art History
254(2)
Selection 3 Business
256(1)
Video: The New Entrepreneur
257(1)
"Why is Papa John's Rolling in the Dough?"
257(8)
Courland Bovee
Vocabulary Booster: What's in, What's Out? What's Hot, What's Not?
265(4)
Chapter 6 Organizing Textbook Information
269(54)
The Demands of College Study
270(4)
Building Knowledge Networks
271(1)
The Study Process
271(1)
Organizing Textbook Information
272(1)
Brain Booster: Exercise to Boost Brain Power
273(1)
Annotating
274(5)
Why Annotate?
274(1)
Reader's Tip: How to Annotate
275(1)
When to Annotate
275(4)
Note Taking
279(44)
When and How to Take Notes
279(1)
The Cornell Method
279(1)
Reader's Tip: How to Take Notes: The Cornell Method
279(4)
Outlining
283(1)
Reader's Tip: Guidelines for Successful Outlining
284(3)
Brain Booster: Sleep and Problem Solving
287(1)
Reader's Tip: How to Map
288(1)
Mapping
288(1)
Summary Points
289(1)
MyReadingLab
290(1)
The Reading Workshop
290(1)
Selection 1 Business Communications
291(1)
"Watch Your Language"
291(6)
Gary Armstrong
Philip Kotler
Concept Prep For Communications And Language
297(2)
Selection 2 Health
299(1)
"Nutrition, Health, and Stress"
299(9)
Barbara Brehm
Concept Prep For Health
308(2)
Selection 3 Criminal Justice
310(1)
Video: Dna And The Criminal Justice System
311(1)
"Police DNA Collection Sparks Questions"
311(7)
Carolyn Thompson
Vocabulary Booster: The Sun, The Moon, And The Stars
318(5)
Chapter 7 Inference
323(64)
What Is an Inference?
324(2)
What Is Required to Make a Reasonable Inference?
326(4)
Implied Meaning in Humor
326(2)
Brain Booster: The Brain's Pleasure Center and Learning
328(2)
Connotative Language
330(3)
Euphemisms and Politically Correct Language
333(1)
Figurative Language
333(5)
Idioms
334(1)
Similes
334(1)
Metaphors
334(1)
Literary Analogies
335(1)
Hyperbole
335(1)
Personification
335(1)
Verbal Irony
335(3)
Figurative Language in Poetry
338(2)
More Types of Inferences
340(2)
Inferences from Facts
340(2)
Inferences About a Speaker or Narrator
342(1)
Inferences Based on Action and Description
343(3)
Using Prior Knowledge to Make Inferences
346(3)
Brain Booster: Boost Brain Power Through Collaboration
346(2)
Expanding Prior Knowledge
348(1)
Reader's Tip: Making Inferences
348(1)
Drawing Conclusions
349(38)
Summary Points
354(1)
MyReadingLab
355(1)
The Reading Workshop
355(1)
Selection 1 Short Story
356(1)
"A Dip In the Poole"
356(7)
Bill Pronzini
Concept Prep For Philosophy And Literature
363(3)
Selection 2 Short Story
366(1)
"The Mountain Man"
366(7)
Thaddeus Rutkowski
Selection 3 Personal Narrative
373(1)
Video: Illiteracy In The United States
374(1)
"Fear the College Years"
374(7)
From The Teacher Who Couldn't Read: A Memoir
John Corcoran
Concept Prep For Political Science
381(3)
Vocabulary Booster: CAN I GET THAT IN WRITING?
384(3)
Chapter 8 Point of View
387(54)
Textbooks and the Author's Point of View
388(1)
What Is the Author's Point of View?
388(4)
What Is Bias?
389(3)
What Is the Reader's Point of View?
392(4)
Brain Booster: Male and Female Brains and Their Points of View
395(1)
What Are Fact and Opinion?
396(4)
Reader's Tip: Questions to Uncover Bias
396(4)
What Is the Author's Purpose?
400(4)
What Is the Author's Tone?
404(6)
Reader's Tip: Recognizing an Author's Tone
404(6)
Point of View in Editorial Cartoons
410(31)
Summary Points
413(1)
MyReadingLab
414(1)
The Reading Workshop
414(1)
Selection 1 Philosophy
415(1)
"Decision"
415(8)
Gary Kirby
Jeffrey Goodpaster
Selection 2 Science
423(1)
Video: Global Warming
423(1)
"The Role of Humans in Global Warming"
423(8)
Teresa Audesirk
Selection 3 Health
431(1)
"Steroids"
431(7)
Rebecca J. Donatelle
Vocabulary Booster: Say, What?
438(3)
Chapter 9 Critical Thinking
441(52)
What Is Thinking?
442(1)
What Is Critical Thinking?
443(3)
Critical Thinking Skills and College Goals
444(1)
Reader's Tip: Four Habits of Effective Critical Thinkers
445(1)
Barriers to Critical Thinking
445(1)
Recognizing an Argument
446(12)
Steps in Analyzing and Evaluating an Argument
447(1)
Step 1 Identify the Position on the Issue
447(3)
Step 2 Identify the Support in the Argument
450(2)
Reader's Tip: Types of Support for Arguments
452(1)
Step 3 Evaluate the Support
452(4)
Step 4 Evaluate the Argument
456(2)
Inductive and Deductive Reasoning
458(1)
Applying the Four Steps of Critical Thinking
458(6)
Explanation of the Four Steps
459(5)
Creative and Critical Thinking
464(29)
Brain Booster: The Creative Brain
466(1)
Summary Points
466(1)
MyReadingLab
467(1)
The Reading Workshop
467(1)
Selection 1 Essay
468(1)
Video: The Magic Number Of Beauty
468(1)
"The Importance of Being Beautiful"
468(7)
Sidney Katz
Selection 2 Essay
475(1)
"Give the Ref a Gavel"
475(7)
Eldon L. Ham
Selection 3 Essay
482(1)
"How Boys Become Men"
482(7)
Jon Katz
Vocabulary Booster: Lights, Camera, Action!
489(4)
Chapter 10 Graphic Illustrations
493(44)
What Graphics Do
494(43)
Reader's Tip: How to Read Graphic Material
494(1)
Diagrams
495(1)
Tables
496(2)
Maps
498(2)
Pie Graphs
500(1)
Bar Graphs
501(1)
Cumulative Bar Graphs
502(1)
Line Graphs
503(2)
Flowcharts
505(1)
Summary Points
506(1)
MyReadingLab
507(1)
The Reading Workshop
507(1)
Selection 1 Personal Narrative
508(1)
"Little Income, Big Debt: Managing Money in College"
508(8)
Trent Hamm
Selection 2 Science
516(1)
Video: The American Diet
516(1)
"The Risks and Benefits of Weight Loss Plans"
516(8)
A. Campbell
Selection 3 Sociology
524(1)
"Technology, and the Environment"
524(8)
John J. Macionis
Vocabulary Booster: Play It Again, Sam
532(5)
Chapter 11 Rate Flexibility
537(20)
Why Is Reading Rate Important?
538(1)
What Is Your Baseline Reading Rate?
538(3)
Factors Affecting Reading Rate and Technique
541(2)
Varying Rate and Technique to Fit Purpose
541(1)
Rate Variations and Prior Knowledge
542(1)
Brain Booster: Music to Our Ears and to Our Brains
542(1)
Habits for Faster Reading
543(6)
Concentrate
543(1)
Stop Regressing
544(1)
Expand Fixations
544(1)
Stop Vocalizing
545(1)
Preview
545(1)
Use Your Pen as a Pacer
545(1)
Push and Pace: Set a Time Goal
546(3)
Skimming
549(2)
Reader's Tip: Techniques for Skimming
550(1)
Scanning
551(6)
Reader's Tip: Techniques for Scanning
551(1)
Summary Points
551(1)
MyReadingLab
552(1)
The Reading Workshop
552(1)
Vocabulary Booster: Foreign Terms
553(4)
Chapter 12 Test Taking
557(22)
Can Being Test Wise Improve Your Score?
558(1)
Brain Booster: Balance Memorization and Application in Test Preparation in Test Preparation
558(1)
General Strategies for Mental and Physical Preparation
558(3)
Before Taking a Test
558(1)
Reader's Tip: Preparing for a Test
559(1)
During the Test
560(1)
After the Test
561(1)
Brain Booster: Turn Mistakes into Successes
561(1)
Strategies for Standardized Reading Tests
561(2)
Read to Comprehend the Passage as a Whole
561(1)
Anticipate What Is Coming Next
562(1)
Read Rapidly, but Don't Allow Yourself to Feel Rushed
562(1)
Read to Learn and Enjoy
562(1)
Self-Test for the Main Idea
563(1)
Consider All Alternatives Before Choosing an Answer
563(1)
Recognizing the Major Question Types on Reading Comprehension Tests
563(8)
Main Idea Questions
563(2)
Detail Questions
565(1)
Inference Questions
566(1)
Author's Purpose' Questions
566(1)
Vocabulary Questions
567(4)
Strategies for Content Exams
571(5)
Multiple-Choice, True-False, and Matching Items
571(1)
Short-Answer Items
572(1)
Essay Questions
572(3)
Reader's Tip: Key Words in Essay Questions
575(1)
Locus of Control
576(3)
Summary Points
577(1)
MyReadingLab
578(1)
The Reading Workshop
578(1)
Appendix 1 ESL: Making Sense of Figurative Language and Idioms
579(6)
Reader's Tip: Categorizing Idioms
583(2)
Appendix 2 The Reading Workshop: Topics and Formats for Book Discussions
585(8)
Glossary 593(4)
Credits 597(1)
Index 598