She learned to bake and to roast, to mend and to scrub. She learned to sew and to knit. She helped her mother tend the garden. She learned to dye. She helped her father in the shop, doing the work that her brother hated, "cutting Wick for the Candles, filling the Dipping Mold, and the Molds for cast Candles."
What more could she study? A Boston newspaper printed "A Dialogue between a thriving Tradesman and his Wife about the Education of Their Daughter." The wife wishes to send the girl to school. The husband refuses, telling her:
Prithee, good Madam, let her first be able, To read a Chapter truly, in the Bible, That she may'nt mispronounce God's People, Popel, Nor read Cunstable for Constantinople; Make her expert and ready at her Prayers, That God may keep her from the Devils Snares; Teach her what's useful, how to shun deluding, To roast, to toast, to boil and mix a Pudding. To knit, to spin, to sew, to make or mend, To scrub, to rub, to earn and not to spend, I tell thee Wife, once more, I'll have her bred To Book'ry, Cook'ry, Thimble, Needle, Thread.
That Jane Franklin learned to write as well as she did was a twist of fate: she was her brother's sister. Mostly, she learned other things. She was bred to bookery and cookery, needle and thread.
She learned how to make soap. She once wrote down the family recipe. In a wooden box with a hole bored in the bottom and set over a tub filled with bricks, soak eighteen bushels of ashes and one bushel of lime with water. Leach lye. Then, in a copper pot, boil the lye with wax-"won third mirtle wax two thirds clean tallow the Greener the wax the beter," she wrote-and keep it from boiling over "by flirting the froith with a scimer." Stir in salt. "Be carefull not to Put two much salt in it will make it Britle." Line a mold with a cloth ("not too coars") and pour in the boiling soap: "keep it smoth on the top take care to let your Frame stand on a Level let care be taken when it is in that it Is not Jogd." Let it set overnight, and in the morning cut it "with a small wier fixed to a round stick at Each End." Use a gauge to make sure each cake is of equal weight and, if not, "Pare it fitt."
She lived a life of confinement. She never learned to ride. ("I hant courage to ride a hors," she once admitted.) If she left the city, it was with her mother, by boat, to visit the Folgers on Nantucket, where she played with her cousin Keziah. She spent her Sundays at the Old South Meeting House, listening to men's voices thundering from the pulpit. She ran errands, to the shops, to the docks, and to James's printing house, to visit her brothers. She visited her married sisters and helped care for their children, or they for her: some of her nieces and nephews were older than she was. She loved best her niece Grace.
Most days she spent at home, close to the fire. She was curious, and she could be untoward. But she was dutiful. She was pared to fit.
A girl's apprenticeship was girlhood itself. A boy's apprenticeship was a trade. In 1717, when Jane was five, her brother James came back from England and set up a printing shop in Boston, "over against the Prison in Queen Street." It was a godsend. Here at last was a trade for Benjamin, the bookish boy too poor to go to Harvard. In 1718, he became his brother's apprentice: a printer's devil. He moved into a room above James's shop. Benny was twelve; Jenny was six.
The best part of his apprenticeship, Franklin always said, was the chance it gave him to read. At the Blue Ball, he had only ever found in his father's library a few books he liked: Plutarch's Lives, "a Book of Defoe's called an Essay on Projects and another of Dr. Mather's call'd Essays to do Good." But working at a printer's shop was almost as good as working at a bookshop. "I now had Access to better Books," he remembered. "An Acquaintance with the Apprentices of Booksellers, enabled me sometimes to borrow a small one, which I was careful to return soon and clean. Often I sat up in my Room reading the greatest Part of the Night."
Jane Colman read all night long, too. Her father's house was stocked with books. She read "all the English Poetry, and polite Pieces in Prose, printed and Manuscripts in her Father's well furnish'd Library, and much she borrow'd of her Friends and Acquaintance. She had indeed such a Thirst after Knowledge that the Leisure of the Day did not suffice, but she spent whole Nights in reading."
Jane Franklin enjoyed neither the leisure of a minister's daughter nor the library of a printer's apprentice. What books she read were what books she found in the house of a poor soap boiler. "My Father's little Library consisted chiefly of Books in polemic Divinity," her brother had written. Her world of learning widened so far, and no farther.
Her brother resolved to be his own tutor. Determined to become a good writer, he trained himself by reading. The boy who wanted to become the author of his own life taught himself to write by copying the prose style he found in the Spectator. "I thought the Writing excellent, and wish'd if possible to imitate it," he explained. He read an essay, wrote an abstract, and then rewrote the argument from the abstract, to see if he could improve on the original. Then he rewrote the essays as poems since, he thought, "nothing acquaints a Lad so speedily with Variety of Expression, as the Necessity of finding such Words and Phrases as will suit with the Measure, Sound and Rhime of Verse, and at the same Time well express the Sentiment." He wrote rules, pledging himself to brevity ("a multitude of Words obscure the Sense"), clarity ("To write clearly, not only the most expressive, but the plainest Words should be chosen"), and simplicity: "If a Man would that his Writings have an Effect on the Generality of Readers, he had better imitate that Gentleman, who would use no Word in his Works that was not well understood by his Cook-maid." His cook-maid ... or his little sister.
"Prose Writing has been of great Use to me in the Course of my Life," Franklin knew, "and was a principal Means of my Advancement." He would write his way up, and out.
Reading, he grew skeptical of his family's faith. The more books he read, the less he believed the Bible. "I was scarce 15," he remembered, "when, after doubting by turns of several Points as I found them disputed in the different Books I read, I began to doubt of Revelation itself."
He discovered, too, that he liked to argue. "My indiscrete Disputations about Religion began to make me pointed at with Horror by good People, as an Infidel or Atheist." He especially liked to debate, like "University Men," with "another Bookish Lad in the Town, John Collins by Name." They once debated "the Propriety of educating the Female Sex in Learning, and their Abilities for Study." Young Collins "was of Opinion that it was improper" and that girls "were naturally unequal to it." Franklin disagreed: "I took the contrary Side, perhaps a little for Disputes sake."
In crafting his argument, Franklin leaned on Defoe's Essay on Projects, one of the few books in his father's library that he liked. Defoe had proposed the establishment of an "Academy for Women": "I have often thought of it as one of the most barbarous Customs in the world, considering us as a Civilised and a Christian Countrey, that we deny the advantages of Learning to Women." Like Astell, Defoe regretted the frivolousness of girls' education: "Their youth is spent to teach them to Stitch and Sew, or make Bawbles. They are taught to Read indeed, and perhaps to Write their Names, or so; and that is the heighth of a Woman's Education." His Academy for Women was to embrace every subject: "To such whose Genius wou'd lead them to it, I wou'd deny no sort of Learning."
But, for all his Defoe, Franklin didn't win the argument. Collins, he admitted, "was naturally more eloquent, had a ready Plenty of Words, and sometimes ... bore me down more by his Fluency than by the Strength of his Reasons." They parted without settling the question and continued the debate by letters. "Three or four Letters of a Side had pass'd," Franklin wrote, "when my Father happen'd to find my Papers, and read them. Without entering into the Discussion, he took occasion to talk to me about the Manner of my Writing, observ'd that tho' I had the Advantage of my Antagonist in correct Spelling and pointing (which I ow'd to the Printing House) I fell far short in elegance of Expression, in Method and in Perspicuity."
Spelling and pointing (punctuating) were genteel accomplishments; they date to the rise of printing. People used to spell however they pleased, even spelling their own names differently from one day to the next. Then came the printing press, and rules for printers: how to spell, how to point. More books meant more readers; more readers meant more writers. But only the learned, only the lettered, knew how to spell.
Franklin was a better speller than his friend Collins, and he could point better, too, but Collins proved a better debater. Be more precise, Josiah urged his son. Be plainer. On the question itself, he did not venture an opinion.
While Benny was improving his writing by arguing about the education of girls, Jenny was at home, boiling soap and stitching. Quietly, with what time she could find, she did more. She once confided to her brother, "I Read as much as I Dare."
Excerpted from Book of Ages by Jill Lepore. Copyright © 2013 Jill Lepore. Excerpted by permission of Random House LLC, a division of Random House, Inc.
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